Field Operational Manual

This manual will guide Field Staff what to do, how and why in the given concept of intervention:

General Guidelines for Program Staff:

Every field staff shall spend 10 days in the field every month.

Home work should be done involving Program Coordinator or Program Director before every field visit on what is to be done, how and why in particular villages to be visited.

Partnership orientation shall be conducted in all new villages.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercise should be carried out in all partner villages for Micro Level Planning.

Profile of each partner village should be prepared and updated every year.

Work progress shall be monitored based on the quarterly action plan and shall be reviewed every three months.

Field Centre Staff specific:

  1. Each of the 3 field centres shall display list of village wise activities implemented in the area and amount involved.
  2. Each field centre staff shall ensure that the VDC in each village analyse at least one problem of the village, related to social or economic or political or environmental and report during quarterly review
  3. Update Gender composition in VDC and ADCC
  4. Ensure regular attendance particularly of female.
  5. Revisit concept role and responsibilities of VDC and Area Coordination Committee.
  6. Update records of VDC accounts meetings and activities
  7. Plan and execute collective actions of the community such as community tree plantation, community cleanliness.
  8. Develop profile of each partner village and update every year.
  9. Identify problem and analyse root causes and plan relevant development programs with the VDC.
  10. Identify training needs of the community and seek facilitation support.
  11. Field centre staff shall review progress of activities and present report every three months.
  12. Shall require every VDC to bring their records and update the same every quarter.


How to conduct Partnership orientation:


In partnership community is organised at three levels- group (SHGs implementing various economic activities), village- Development Committee (VDC) represented by traditional institutions- youth, women, church and village authority.


Partnership agreement is required to be signed and the Terms and Conditions agreed upon are as follows:


Partnership Agreement

This partnership is signed on this day the ………………………….. between the Volunteers for Village Development (VVD) and ……………………….. Village in respect of partnership for implementing community development in the village, the former as development agent trying to influence the latter for Social, Economic, Political and Environmental changes on the basis of the following terms and conditions:


  1. The village will form Village Development Committee (VDC) represented by two from each traditional institution- Youth, Women, Church and Village Authority with gender balance to assist the village administration headed by the hereditary Headman.
  2. Two VDC members from each village shall represent in the Area Development Coordination Committee at the field centre with gender balance.
  3. The VDC shall be collectively accountable for all development activities in the village while ADCC shall be collectively accountable for the area.
  4. The Area Development Coordination Committee shall meet every three months to review progress.
  5. The Village Development Committee (VDC) shall analyse at least one problem related to their livelihood and plan relevant solution every quarter.
  6. The project staff shall facilitate community capacitation in terms of awareness of issues – social, economic, political and environment and skills in terms of management of project activities.
  7. VDC shall maintain village profile and update the same every year.
  8. VDC shall maintain records of meetings, activities and accounts.
  9. VDC shall ensure proper implementation of all project activities in the village.
  10. VVD shall provide resources for implementing different activities under different thematic programs for three years at a time beginning Oct. 2016-2019.
  11. VDC shall submit applications through the ADCC at the field centre and the latter shall forward them to VVD for final screening. All livelihood support shall focus on the poorest families identified during wealth ranking exercise in the village.
  12. Partner village shall evolve regulative measure for proper management and sustainable use of Natural Resources in the village and enforce all regulations adopted at area level.
  13. For non cooperation, and for reasons of default, and deviation, and misuse of fund, irregularities causing failure of the project, VVD shall reserve the right to terminate the partnership anytime.
  14. Best performing VDC shall be given a reward of Rs. 10,000/- every three years.


Thus agreed upon the terms and conditions stated above both the parties independently put in their signatures hereafter:


              On behalf of partner villages:                                                                                                                   On behalf of the NGO 


Composition of Village Development Committee (VDC):


  • Gender balance to be insisted in VDC formation:

This is intended for changing Gender bias mindset at grass root.


  • VDC is represented by two from each of the traditional institutions- Youth, Women, Church and Village Authority. This is intended for transparency in village system through people’s participation.


  • VDC is neither a mechanism for receiving resources from project nor a power centre parallel to the Village Authority. It is rather a mechanism for conscious living for the community and is to subserve the Village Authority in analysing local problems and plan relevant development programme.


  • Apart from participation as members women’s attendance in meetings has to be ensured.


Role and Responsibilities of VDC:


  • VDC is basically an agency for change in the village. It shall acquire capacity to analyse local situation and plan relevant development programs in consultation with the Village Authority.


  • VDC shall do annual need assessment with the help of facilitating NGO/s


  • VDC shall maintain records such as village profile (land, forest, population, social institutions, livestocks, food production and receipts of welfare schemes etc.)


  • VDC shall monitor function of service institutions- school, health sub centre, road, water, power supplies, PDS and all other National Flagship Programs and lobby with district administration for necessary action.


  • VDC shall alert the community on people’s duties and responsibilities against rights.


VDC shall plan sustainable use of natural resources- land, water, forest and wild lives by promoting use of bio fertilizers, enhancing production and productivity by changing traditional practice of cultivation, prevent poisoning of rivers for fishing, prevent burning of forest for hunting, regulate fishing and hunting during breeding season, plan annual tree plantation and by regulating season for cutting trees.


  • VDC shall maintain records of project activities, cash books, ledger, meeting and its proceedings.


Area Development Coordination Committee (ADCC):

ADCC is represented by two from each VDC. Female participation as member is compulsory in its formation which is intended for social change in the area.


Role and responsibilities of ADCC:


  1. Mobilization of Cooperation in the area.
  2. Organizing Seminars/Workshops in the area on issues related to their own situation.
  3. Plan relevant programs of the area and incorporate them in the project proposal of VVD.
  4. Monitoring functioning of field staff and VDC.
  5. Monitor fund utilization of the SHIDO.
  6. Consulting and assessing needs of the partner villages.
  7. To deal with issues common to the area.
  8. To lobby with state authority and advocate on behalf of the area as a pressure group.
  9. Coordination of project activities.
  10. To build a common bond of fellowship in the area.
  11. Share understanding of development to deal with issues common to the area.
  12. Empowering the women.
  13. Networking with other NGO and people’s organization.


Program Concepts:

The Project intends to educate the community and influence change in terms of social, economic, political and environment:


Social Change: 

Our effort for social change has been for Gender balance in composition of VDC and ADCC. This is intended for change of mindset at grass root level.


Our effort has been to amend Gender bias customs at traditional institution level, the Tangkhul Naga Long (TNL) considered to be the custodian of social customs and traditions of the Tribe.


Political Change

For political change our efforts has been to promote transparency in village system through people’s participation for reducing conflict.


To resolve inter village boundary conflicts without violence and without resorting to third party intervention.


To find a permanent solution to the vexed problem of inter village boundary disputes.


To evolve a protocol to protect constitutional rights of the tribals over land and natural resource.


Economic Change:

For economic change our efforts has been to:


Enhance food security by enhancing production by creating productive assets in terms of land development for agriculture and enhancing productivity by irrigation.


Enhance people’s income through various economic activities such as livestock keeping, skill development, promotion of kitchen garden and by creation of productive assets in terms of fruit trees, indigenous salt wells and promotion of cash crop cultivation.


Environmental Changes:

The oral tradition of land use and forest management has degenerated and abused in different ways. Our efforts for change in terms of environment has been to operates:

  • to regenerate forest by community tree plantation
  • to activate water conservation
  • to introduce of chulhas for reducing domestic energy consumption
  • to regulate season for hunting, fishing and felling trees
  • to adopt regulative measures for fire, domestic animals and prevention of chemical in agriculture
  • to include conservation of bio-diversity and wild lives
  • Change practice of cultivation from shifting to permanent
  • to promote orchard for sustainable land use 
  • to excavate micro rain harvest pits to enrich underground water body.


Orientation on Development Concepts:


It may be briefed to the people that Development simply means change- change from a particular situation to a better situation.


Development however has 3 dimensions:

  • Physical
  • Mental and
  • Spiritual


Development does not happen if one of the three is missing.


Physical development is structures that are built by spending money.


Mental development is conscience of what is good or bad, what is right or wrong


Spiritual development simply means conscious living, being able to live by what is good and right.


The community needs to understand that they must not live by a borrowed concept of development but define their own.


The concept of development we have today is defined by the corporates whose focus is the moon but for us what we see like the moon is the plate in which we eat.


Their’s  is for greed, ours is for need and survival.

If land and forest resources are our means of livelihood our development should be defined based on land and forest.


Making a better use of these resources, making a sustainable use of this resources should be our development.


Micro Level Planning:


How to conduct a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA):


PRA is a tool commonly used in Micro level Planning for community development:


This is an occasion in which all community should be involved.


There are at least nine exercises to be carried out and takes a day or two:


  • Preparation of Village Profile:

A prepared questionnaire is used for seeking the informations from the community gathered. This datas become the bench mark datas for comparison by updating every year.


Authenticity of the informations provided must be ensured by cross checking records and with different stake holders of the community.


  • Resource mapping:

The entire village map is drawn on the floor by committee members using different coloured chalks.


The facilitating staff then asks to indicate different resources using different symbols, such as- river, streams, paddy fields, grazing land, forest land, potential land for development for agriculture land with mineral deposit, shifting land etc.


  • Social Mapping:

After the resource map is copied on A4 size of paper the floor is wiped and cleaned for another map which is map of the village vicinity. Different categories of houses are indicated, institutions- Church, Schools, Anganwadi centres, Health centres and other facilities like, water sources power house, community Hall, Play ground are marked. Houses of widows, persons with disabilities are also marked in the map.


  1. Time line is a tool by which historical events both negative and positive had taken place in the village. The exercise is simple, draw a line in the middle as shown below:


List of  Negative events                    Year List of  Positive events                      Year
(eg. Was there any disaster in the village) Epidemic, failure of crops (when did Christianity come in the village and so on) school, road, electricity and as on.


  1. Time trend- this is to indicate what was there that you don’t see in the village now and also what was not there that you see now in the village.


  1. Seasonality analysis: This is to find out what happens in different seasons, such as health problem, crops availability, low/high income, finance, borrowing/repayment, food security/insecurity and so on.


  1. Transact walk: This is simply walking across the village with some responsible person of the village to informally talk and derive more informations while walking.


  1. Problem Tree Analysis: Often NGOs for lack of experience address manifestations of peoples problems and promote dependency. This exercise depicts a particular problem of the community by drawing a tree. All the multiplying problems are shown as branches of the tree. Facilitating field staff then helps the participants to identify root causes of the problem and by cutting the root causes of the problem our intervention can destroy the problem once for all.


  1. Income and expenditure analysis: This exercise is to show the community how they fail to improve their economy. The facilitator ask the community to list down things that they purchase and things that they sell and then show them how they can improve their economy by reducing the list of things they purchase and increase their sales.


Things Monitoring Staff should ensure:


  • Field staff must ensure that VDCs are represented equally by both men and women and there is change in the Gender bias mindset of the community.
  • VDCs are represented from all the traditional institutions- Youth, women, church and Village Authority and there is transparency and accountability in the system of village governance.
  • Must ensure that village profiles and records of activities and A/Cs are properly maintained.
  • Must ensure that rules and regulations for governance and management of land and natural resources are on records and enforced.
  • Must ensure that resource and social maps are used in planning
  • Must ensure that development proposals are based on problem analysis
  • Must ensure that community is able to access their rights and entitlement such as Primary education, drinking water, health, social security schemes like old age pension, and public distributions like rice.
  • Must ensure that people’s agricultural practices are environment friendly and avoid use of chemical and use only indigenous seed.


Monitoring output of current programs:


  • Livelihood:

The objective of this program is to improve socio economic conditions of target families in 42 partner villages.


By project end in 3 years (Sept. 2019) we expect to see that socio economic status of families in 42 villages will be visible through diversified sources of income and increased productive assets.

Activities Target:  October 2019- September 2022


Output target must be ensured by Program staff.


  • No. of families covered and benefited by how many, must be on records of the VDC.
  • Area of forest saved from shifting cultivation must be on records of the VDC.
  • No. of families able to increase production by how many bags of food grains should be on records of the VDC.
  • No. of families benefited by livestock and profit amount must be on record of the VDC
  • No. of youth who acquired skills and applying skill for self employment.


  1.   Natural Resource Management:


The objective of this is sustainable use of Natural resources for ecological and atmospheric equilibrium.


The outcome we expect of this is that by project end in 2019 village administration in villages effectively coordinate enforcement of regulative measures in respect of land use, fire, cattle, hunting, fishing and felling of trees in their respective areas for which the following activities must be ensured to accomplish.


Activities Target:  October 2019- September 2022


Respective Program Staff must ensure that targets set are accomplished within stipulated time of the project.


Further Field Staff must ensure the following datas are on record:


  • No. of saplings raised and distributed
  • No. of trees planted each of the 3 years
  • No. of micro rain harvest pits dug.
  • No. of villages drinking water is made available
  • Indigenous salt processing is functional and economics of the project is on record.
  • Outcome result of chulha is recorded (reduction in energy consumption nd health impact etc.)
  • Effective ban on use of chemical fertiliser is on record
  • Ban on use of poison and dynamo for fishing is on record.
  • Villagers regulating season for feeling trees are on record.
  • Villages restricting hunting
  • Villages taking up annual community tree plantation
  • Villages changed practice of cultivation from shifting to permanent.


Field staff must analyse impact of the measures above with community and record results visible or change felt by the community.


  1. Conflict mitigation:


The objective of this Program is to resolve inter village boundary disputes without violence.


The end result for this intervention is that by end of the project in 3 years people resolve their conflicts in democratic process without violence and without third party intervention.


The following activities are planned to be accomplished in the current phase of the program between October – September


Activities Target:  October 2019- September 2022


Program Staff shall make sure that the activities are carried out. Besides the filled staff shall


  1. Document cases of conflict, both points of  views
  2. Identify villages with possible conflict
  3. Identify villages willing to carry out mapping for permanent structures.
  4. Ensure conflict intervention cases are on records
  5. Documents cases of successful indication. 


  1. Church Network


The objective of this intervention is that church is able to wipe tears of destitute women/ widows who have no means of production for livelihood with dignity.


The program shall be implemented in the Tangkhul Naga Baptist Convention (TNBC) through women wing of the three Associations- Northern Tangkhul Naga Baptist Association (NTNBA), Eastern Tangkhul Naga Baptist Association (ETNBA), and Southern Tangkhul Naga Baptist Association (STNBA). Each Association will submit 50 cases of widows without means of production. 5% of 15 lakhs shall be given to TNBC for processing the files.


  • Field Staff will ensure that each Association gets 4.75 lakhs.
  • Ensure that each Association women deducts Rs...........for processing and monitoring.
  • Ensure that at least 45 widows covered by each Association
  • Help the Associations prepare cases properly.
  • Help the Associations prepare progress of each case quarterly
  • Verify project implementation on ground.


  1. Women’s Empowerment:


The objective of the intervention is that women have access to equal rights with men. 


The end result expected is that by end of the project in 2019 more women participate in village assembly.


To ensure that the end results is materialised in 3 years we have the following activities to be implemented:


Activities Target:   October 2019- September 2022


  • Field staff identify villages allowing women participation in Village Assembly
  • Identify women who participated in Village Assembly
  • Identify cases of women in partner villages who were able to retain property after husbands/father’s death.
  • Identify indications of change in Gender bias mindset.


Quarterly Reviews:

Quarterly Review is normally done at 3 levels- Area level, Joint Program Staff level and at Governing Body level.


Area Levels-

The Quarterly review is conducted by the ADCC Chairman. Field Senior field centre staff reads resolutions and recordings of the previous review meeting. Progress of follow up actions if any are discussed.


Each VDC present their 3 months report on meetings held last 3 months, attendance particularly of female members, matters discussed if any, staff visits to the village and matters discussed, status of work if any program is currently being implemented in the village, report on management of land and natural resources and any positive result visible in the village owing to project intervention.


Joint Level:

Reports of all partner villages are consolidated by each Field Centre Staff and presented in the joint review. A consolidated report of the 3 field centres is presented by the Program Coordinator and update progress of every 3 months, various issues, difficulties short comings are discussed and corrective measures are suggested.


Apart from activity report Administration and Accounts are also presented and fund utilisation is reviewed. Photographs of project activities form an integral part of the report.


Governing Body Level:

After all rectifications necessary is done, the report is presented to the Governing Body members every three months for their valuable feedback.